I can imagine all the above examples can take place somehow in specific kinds of soft robot designs. Hello Paul, Thank you for your comment! However, there are other instances where adhesion between materials of HASEL actuators could be improved. This should be a very simple process to achieve in an industry. Hi Eric, Thank you very much for your detailed replies. These thick membranes resulted in the need for rather high voltages to generate the necessary electric fields to trigger actuation. Permalink Submitted by Eric Acome on Sun,

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Permalink Submitted by Christoph Keplinger on Fri, So we can soon bendiing to see developments in rapid prototyping of these actuators, especially with interesting geometries.

Steam bending – Wikipedia

Permalink Submitted by Jiawei Yang on Thu, SPIEV In the Peano-HASEL paper, we are using flexible but inextensible materials as the actuator shell, so the hydrogel does not experience any significant strain. I am very enjoying reading, but still have some questions.

They were often decorated with paints, beads, sea lion whiskers and ivory figurines. HASEL actuators solve important issues, but they open up just as many new questions, challenges and opportunities. Whether hasep is a desired feature or not depends on the hqsel application. Muscle-mimetic, electrohydraulic transducers that linearly contract on activation. Most 3D systems cannot print multiple materials, and have to use support structures made of the same material while printing with cavities, which remain inside permanently.


Thank you very much again.

Whereas hydrogels can retain water with dissolved hygroscopic salts, the water content fluctuates with the ambient humidity.

This force is induced by the Maxwell stress?

Steam bending wood allows the wood grain to follow the bend, leaving it strong where a piece cut from larger stock would snap across crosscut grains or laminated joints. GEO, standing for Gel, Oil, and Elastomer is without a doubt an incredibly interesting combination of materials, that might have applications far beyond the field of soft actuators.

Thanks for the resources on fatigue behavior in these soft systems — particularly hydrogel! Thank you again for your comment and questions! However, it did not affect the performance or conductivity of the electrodes. Terrasi, Stacked dielectric elastomer actuator for tensile force transmission. Muscle-mimetic, electrohydraulic transducers that linearly contract on activation “. It is great to learn HASEL can couple dielectric elastomers and haseel actuators, and exhibit unique attributes for example, self-healing.

A steam box is a long, sealed container used to steam wooden planks for the purpose of making them pliable. Therefore, I think HASEL actuators are best described to synergize the activation mechanism of dielectric elastomers Maxwell stress with the versatility and ease of fabrication of soft fluidic actuators, and thus form a new direction of research for artificial muscles.


I realize the significance of adhesion in the actuators, and the adhesion will be vital for either effectve actuation or long time use. We look forward to an exciting discussion with experts in these areas and to hearing your questions and comments. Skip to main content. Figure reproduced from [ i ]. The hydrogel electrodes may contact with other materials, and short circuit might happen if the materials are conductive. Hence, we resorted to using readily available materials to demonstrate the concepts.

Writing a paper Writing a proposal in situ Mechanics tensor tensor and its invariants. I have answered them below:. There will be many oppotunities to develop diverse adhesion methods for different materials in different applications.

The students here at Harvard and in China are all your admirers.

Steam bending

Hi Christoph, it is an amazing work! Ecoflex is convenient for proof-of-concept devices, but there are other rubbers, such hassel butyl rubber a crosslinked polyisobutylenewhich have a permeability that is about a hundred times lower than Ecoflex.

I am wondering, what kinds of such fatigue behaviors have you encountered during your design and application of the HASEL devices?